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超碰大香蕉12 翻譯要忠于原文(包括原文的內容、風格、句式、詞匯、音調、節律、語層……),不能越俎代庖,翻譯家對于作者真可謂亦步亦趨。他還得在本國語言中找到最貼切的形式來表達原著,為本國讀者著想,對本國讀者負責,對本國語言的純潔性負責。傅雷力倡在譯之前“將原作(連同思想,感情,氣氛,情調等等)化為我有”,就是為了盡可能忠實于原作。從傅雷的譯文看,我認為他“直譯”、“意譯”兼而用之,有好些地方是采取意譯的。傅譯好就好在理解正確,誤解甚少、譯文忠實、貼切,又不拘一格。我也不曾發現他對原著隨意篡改。譯文基本上做到原文的內容、意思句句落實,字字落實。有人說,意譯讀起來不費勁,像讀本國小說,仿佛有置身中國社會的感覺。我們讀傅譯卻並無置身中國社會的感覺,但是像讀本國小說的感覺是的確存在的。那正是傅譯的成功之處,因為作品在原文里決不會讀起來像經過翻譯似的。傅雷嘔心瀝血的目標就是使“譯文仿佛是原作者的中文寫作”。難道非把譯文一概歐化,讀來“洋腔十足”,生硬如洋人講中國話,才算反映客觀實際,稱得上異國情調嗎?刻意求“形似”,一味采用僵直的譯法,結果一定會“貌合神離”,機械呆板。翻譯絕非“照貓畫虎”,“照貓畫虎”的結果難免“畫虎不成反類犬”。理想的譯文當然須神形兼備,達到內容和形式的統一。但當內容和形式發生矛盾時咱.然應先顧及內容,犧牲原來的形式,以內容為主,以形式為次,“重神似不重形似”。“LEPEREGORIOT”譯成“高老頭”,譯得多好,這是意譯。我至今未曾听說過對此有非議,主張一定要直譯成“高里奧爸爸”才心滿意足的。何況,高老頭的形象決不是一個什麼姓高的中國老漢,他在讀者眼里始終是一個法國19世紀落魄的面粉商。caopengr超碰在线视频 傅雷夫婦在江甦路宅邸書房內(1965年8月)欧美caopeng超碰在线

As a teacher at a language school, one of my key interests is monitoring and understanding the journey of my students’ language progress. Sometimes, it can be a little disheartening realising that perhaps my best efforts are still not enough to help students who may not be responding to the coursework. I believe that as a teacher, there must be something I can improve on which can help all my students achieve maximum progress.

Recently, I attended a session held by Pearson on The Global Scale of English. This session discusses The Global Scale of English (GSE), a standard to measure learner’s English competencies, and the GSE Teacher Toolkit. Below, I will tell you what I’ve gained from the session.

 

Quote 1

What is GSE?

The Global Scale of English, or GSE for short, is a measurement that helps teachers to measure the competencies of English learners. The GSE’s development has been based on the CEFR model. CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) has been widely used by teachers, students, schools, and publishers to standardise language competency. It can be broken down into three groups of basic users (A), independent users (B), and proficient users (C), with two levels for each ‘user group’. CEFR contains a number of ‘can-do statements’. Each level in CEFR has its own ‘can- do statements’ which learners need to achieve in order to move to the higher level.

Below is CEFR levels and their labels:

CEFR Levels

*source: https://www.english.com/blog/addressing-the-missing-levels-with-gse/

Within schools, learners have a certain amount of time to complete a course and achieve ‘can-do statements’ of a CEFR level. As every learner’s ability and progress in learning is unique, not all learners progress at the same pace. Progress takes time, and each learner needs their own individual time to attain a certain level of competency.

Quote 2

In the long run, this creates a problem.

A learner who has studied English for a long time may be assumed to belong to a particular level of CEFR (let’s say B1), but there is possibility that the learner belongs to between A2 and B1 instead. However, since the learner is placed in a B1 class, he or she needs to keep up with B1-level expectations. This can lead to difficulties for the learner in reaching maximum progress and obtaining a satisfactory learning result at the end of an English program. Up to this point, I can very much relate this scenario with some of my students.

GSE aims to fill the gap. By quantifying each level of CEFR, GSE gives a more accurate manner of predicting learner’s competency in CEFR model. By having accurate knowledge of learner’s competency, teachers can be more precise in planning their lesson. Therefore, maximum progress of all students can take place.

Below is a comparison between CEFR and GSE:

GSE Tabel

The above presents the GSE measuring table of proficiency in all language skills and levels based on the CEFR model. As we can see, there is a wide range between some CEFR levels (A2 to B1, B1 to B2, B2 to C1). Hence, a class of A2, for example, consists of learners with competency score 30 (near A1) to 42 (almost B1). GSE helps teachers in identifying the minimum and maximum point of learners’ competency, so that they can plan lessons in which no learner is left behind.

 

Working with GSE

A teacher who is planning a lesson to suit their student’s competency may consult GSE learning objectives by visiting GSE Teacher Toolkit page, https://www.english.com/gse/teacher-toolkit/user/lo . There is a GSE/CEFR scale, where buttons can be moved horizontally based on the score range intended.

For example, if you have a class with A2 level, you can drag the left button on the scale to the minimum A2 score (30) and drag the right button to the maximum A2 score (42). See the picture below for an example:

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On the left side there is a box to choose learner type and skill. For example if we chose to combine ‘adult learners’ and ‘reading’, by clicking the ‘show results’ you will get 22 learning objectives based on order of GSE scores.

Conference

 

Besides learning objectives, GSE Teacher Toolkit also provides Grammar and Vocabulary sections.

Conference

 

In the Grammar section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides downloadable activities based on the chosen grammar category.

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In the Vocabulary section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides pronunciation with American and British accents, definitions, as well as collocation.

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All the above facilities are easily accessed and free to use. These conveniences do not only save teacher’s time and energy, but most importantly they help teachers prepare the right course materials so that their learners get opportunities to reach maximum progress.

 

Conclusion

The Global Scale of English (GSE) provides at least four advantages for both teachers and learners:

  • Teacher obtain a better understanding of students’ individual competency. Therefore, they can prepare and adapt the right course materials in order to suit students’ needs.

  • The GSE Teacher Toolkit makes lesson planning simple, accurate, and easy to use.

  • Learners are given more opportunities to achieve maximum progress in learning English.

  • Recognised globally, GSE helps students to gain confidence in their language ability and competency acceptance.

To learn more about the GSE Teacher’s Toolkit, please visit here.

 

BIODATA

WINDA HAPSARI is an English teacher and teacher educator at LIA Language School, Indonesia. She has been working with a variety of learners for about two decades. She earned her master’s degree in educational psychology from Universitas Indonesia. Besides teaching, she also conducts classroom / educational research and publishes some of her works. Her recent article, which she co- authored with a colleague, titled Teaching Reading to Encourage Critical Thinking and Collaborative Work is published by Springer in early 2018. Her interest includes areas of teacher professional development, teaching language skills, and motivation.