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五十三 〔附錄〕《愛與同情》的藝術特色超碰av大片免费观看 上校想必听見了我的腳步聲。因為他猛地轉過身子,兩只咄咄逼人的小 眼楮在濃密的眉毛下驚愕地逼視我。他顯然不能理解這種駭人听聞的無禮行 徑︰一個下級軍官竟然未經他的許可,膽敢尾隨他。我在他面前兩步的地方 停住腳步,舉手行個軍禮,泰然自若地挺住他那凶險的目光,說道——我的 聲音一定也像月光一樣蒼白無力︰97超碰 退了?這是什麼意思?退了?“請等一等,小姐。”可是她已經掛上了。 ——我訂了婚了??不,人家給我訂了婚了??我並不願意,我從來也沒有 想過這事??現在我可是訂了婚了,現在我給拴住了手腳??可是不,這並 不是真的訂婚??我不是跟老人說過,只有等她把病治好,可她是永遠也不 會恢復健康的??我的諾言只有??不,我的諾言。是根本不算數的!什麼 事也沒有發生,根本什麼事也沒有發生。可我為什麼又吻她一下,吻在她的 嘴上呢???我不是不願意??唉,這同情心,這該死的同情心!他們總是 用這玩意兒來套住我,現在我可是給逮住了。我是正規合法地訂了婚,他們 兩個部在場,她父親和另一個姑娘,還有那個僕人。??可我並不願意,我 並不願意。??現在該怎麼辦才好呢???首先要平心靜氣地想一想!?? 唉,真討厭,老是這篤、篤、篤、篤的聲音??現在這聲音將永遠把我耳朵 震聾了,她將架著拐杖老跟著我??這事是發生了,無可挽回地發生了。我 欺騙了她,他們欺騙了我。我訂了婚。他們給我訂的婚。超碰免费视频超碰免费视频超碰 容忍 這荒唐的愛情一兩天,然後他們就動身出發,于是你又把你自己贏回來了。 可是等到下午越來越逼近,我渾身麻麻辣辣的,越來越不自在,我得心里裝 著一個謊言去經受她那充滿信賴的溫柔的目光,這個念頭越來越折磨我。我 努力裝出輕松的神氣和伙伴們閑聊,可是沒有用處,我十分清楚地感覺到我 腦袋里面有東西在嘀嗒嘀嗒地響個不停,神經在一閃一閃地冒火,喉嚨里突 然干得不行,就仿佛里面有一團壓下去的人在冒煙在燃燒。我完全本能地要 了一杯甜酒,一口氣灌了下去。無濟于事,嗓于還是發于,叫人噎得難受。 于是我又要了第二杯甜酒,一直等我要第三杯的時候,我才發現無意識的動 機︰我是想喝酒壯膽,為的是到了城外不至于一時膽怯或者傷感。我心里有 點東西,我想事先把它麻醉一下,也許是恐懼,也許是羞恥,也許是一種非 常善良的感情,也說不定是一種非常邪惡的感情。是的,是這麼回事,就是 這麼回事——所以在發起沖鋒之前發給士兵雙份的燒酒——我想把我自己搞 得感覺遲鈍,神經麻木,這樣,我即將面臨的嚴重的事情,或許是危險的事 情,我就不會感覺得那麼清楚。然而三杯燒酒下肚的最初效果僅僅表現在我 的雙腳感到沉重,有什麼東西在腦袋里嗡嗡直響,鑽個不停,就像牙醫生的 那台機器在開始那真正痛苦的一擊之前磨著你的牙齒。絕不是一個心里踏 實、頭腦清楚的人,絕不是一個心情歡快的人在那里沿著漫長的公路,—— 只有這一次我才覺得它長得沒有盡頭——心買突直跳,步伐遲遲疑疑地向那 座使人畏懼的府邸走去。

As a teacher at a language school, one of my key interests is monitoring and understanding the journey of my students’ language progress. Sometimes, it can be a little disheartening realising that perhaps my best efforts are still not enough to help students who may not be responding to the coursework. I believe that as a teacher, there must be something I can improve on which can help all my students achieve maximum progress.

Recently, I attended a session held by Pearson on The Global Scale of English. This session discusses The Global Scale of English (GSE), a standard to measure learner’s English competencies, and the GSE Teacher Toolkit. Below, I will tell you what I’ve gained from the session.

 

Quote 1

What is GSE?

The Global Scale of English, or GSE for short, is a measurement that helps teachers to measure the competencies of English learners. The GSE’s development has been based on the CEFR model. CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) has been widely used by teachers, students, schools, and publishers to standardise language competency. It can be broken down into three groups of basic users (A), independent users (B), and proficient users (C), with two levels for each ‘user group’. CEFR contains a number of ‘can-do statements’. Each level in CEFR has its own ‘can- do statements’ which learners need to achieve in order to move to the higher level.

Below is CEFR levels and their labels:

CEFR Levels

*source: https://www.english.com/blog/addressing-the-missing-levels-with-gse/

Within schools, learners have a certain amount of time to complete a course and achieve ‘can-do statements’ of a CEFR level. As every learner’s ability and progress in learning is unique, not all learners progress at the same pace. Progress takes time, and each learner needs their own individual time to attain a certain level of competency.

Quote 2

In the long run, this creates a problem.

A learner who has studied English for a long time may be assumed to belong to a particular level of CEFR (let’s say B1), but there is possibility that the learner belongs to between A2 and B1 instead. However, since the learner is placed in a B1 class, he or she needs to keep up with B1-level expectations. This can lead to difficulties for the learner in reaching maximum progress and obtaining a satisfactory learning result at the end of an English program. Up to this point, I can very much relate this scenario with some of my students.

GSE aims to fill the gap. By quantifying each level of CEFR, GSE gives a more accurate manner of predicting learner’s competency in CEFR model. By having accurate knowledge of learner’s competency, teachers can be more precise in planning their lesson. Therefore, maximum progress of all students can take place.

Below is a comparison between CEFR and GSE:

GSE Tabel

The above presents the GSE measuring table of proficiency in all language skills and levels based on the CEFR model. As we can see, there is a wide range between some CEFR levels (A2 to B1, B1 to B2, B2 to C1). Hence, a class of A2, for example, consists of learners with competency score 30 (near A1) to 42 (almost B1). GSE helps teachers in identifying the minimum and maximum point of learners’ competency, so that they can plan lessons in which no learner is left behind.

 

Working with GSE

A teacher who is planning a lesson to suit their student’s competency may consult GSE learning objectives by visiting GSE Teacher Toolkit page, https://www.english.com/gse/teacher-toolkit/user/lo . There is a GSE/CEFR scale, where buttons can be moved horizontally based on the score range intended.

For example, if you have a class with A2 level, you can drag the left button on the scale to the minimum A2 score (30) and drag the right button to the maximum A2 score (42). See the picture below for an example:

Conference

 

On the left side there is a box to choose learner type and skill. For example if we chose to combine ‘adult learners’ and ‘reading’, by clicking the ‘show results’ you will get 22 learning objectives based on order of GSE scores.

Conference

 

Besides learning objectives, GSE Teacher Toolkit also provides Grammar and Vocabulary sections.

Conference

 

In the Grammar section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides downloadable activities based on the chosen grammar category.

Conference

 

In the Vocabulary section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides pronunciation with American and British accents, definitions, as well as collocation.

Conference

All the above facilities are easily accessed and free to use. These conveniences do not only save teacher’s time and energy, but most importantly they help teachers prepare the right course materials so that their learners get opportunities to reach maximum progress.

 

Conclusion

The Global Scale of English (GSE) provides at least four advantages for both teachers and learners:

  • Teacher obtain a better understanding of students’ individual competency. Therefore, they can prepare and adapt the right course materials in order to suit students’ needs.

  • The GSE Teacher Toolkit makes lesson planning simple, accurate, and easy to use.

  • Learners are given more opportunities to achieve maximum progress in learning English.

  • Recognised globally, GSE helps students to gain confidence in their language ability and competency acceptance.

To learn more about the GSE Teacher’s Toolkit, please visit here.

 

BIODATA

WINDA HAPSARI is an English teacher and teacher educator at LIA Language School, Indonesia. She has been working with a variety of learners for about two decades. She earned her master’s degree in educational psychology from Universitas Indonesia. Besides teaching, she also conducts classroom / educational research and publishes some of her works. Her recent article, which she co- authored with a colleague, titled Teaching Reading to Encourage Critical Thinking and Collaborative Work is published by Springer in early 2018. Her interest includes areas of teacher professional development, teaching language skills, and motivation.